Gender stereotyping of women in the sciences has been shown in what is called the Matilda effect.
The Matilda effect credits men for the scientific contributions of women. This means that women are being overlooked and receiving little to no credit for their scientific achievements because of gender, not because of the quality of the scientific work.
—“Matilda Effect,” Women in Science, August 9, 2012
Since this systematic bias in scientific information and recognition practices fits the second half of Matthew 13:12 in the Bible, which refers to the under-recognition accorded to those who have little to start with, it is suggested that sociologists of science and knowledge can add to the ‘Matthew Effect’, made famous by Robert K. Merton in 1968, the ‘Matilda effect’, named for the American suffragist and feminist critic Matilda J. Gage of New York, who in the late nineteenth century both experienced and articulated this phenomenon.
—Margaret W. Rossiter, “The MatthewMatilda Effect in Science,” Social Studies of Science, May 1, 1993