Cranfield is looking at what is known as the "marzipan layer" of talented people just below board level, whom Higgs argues should be encouraged to gain nonexecutive experience on noncompetitor boards.
Vinnicombe says the marzipan is uneven; some companies have no women at this level either.
Alison Maitland, "UK boards reluctant to bet on 'outsiders'," Business Day (South Africa), November 4, 2003
"Be a man," The Economist, June 28, 2003
Every few days now there is news of a further shift of some team of City brokers dealers from one house to another, mostly of people just below the partner level, hence the expression. The partners, typically pocketing between pounds 500,000 and pounds 2 million for their share of the cake, are the icing. Those just below, who have to rub along on a relatively meagre income of less than pounds 100,000 a year, are less than pleased at seeing their elders' behaviour. Hence the urge to move.
Hamish McRae, "Financial Notebook," The Guardian, February 14, 1985