in silico
adj. In a virtual environment, such as a computer simulation.
Now, with the human genetic code at last published and loaded onto CD-ROMs and DVDs, scientists are talking about a new era of medicine in which medical discoveries will be made not 'in vivo' (in life) or 'in vitro' (in test tubes), but 'in silico,' or on computers.
—Rick Weiss, “A New Genetic Window on Curing Diseases,” The Washington Post, February 11, 2001
1992 (earliest)
Some a-life researchers claim they are creating life forms on computers, in silico creatures as truly alive as the bacteria studied in vitro.
—Joshua Quittner, “Artificial Life Gets Real,” Newsday, July 21, 1992
As the citations make clear, this phrase is a variation on the much older Latin phrases in vivo and in vitro. Although in silico (literally, "in silicon") has likely been around in scientific circles for a while.

In silico thanks go to Word Spy subscriber Robert Saylor for letting me know about this phrase.
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